Archive for category Microbiology
Ascariasis is a human disease. It is caused by the parasitic roundworm name as Ascaris lumbricoides. Perhaps as many as one quarter of the world’s people are infected, and ascariasis is particularly prevalent in tropical regions and in areas of poor hygiene. Other species of the genus Ascaris are parasitic and can cause disease in domestic animals.
They may however be accompanied by inflammation, fever, and diarrhea, and serious problems may develop if the worms migrate to other parts of the body.
Ascariasis is the most common intestinal worm infection. It is found in association with poor personal hygiene, poor sanitation. In many developing countries human feces are used for fertilizer, or poor sanitary facilities allow human waste to mix with local soil in yards, ditches and fields. The eggs can survive in soil for years to reinfect members of the community. The eggs infect their hosts when humans eat the contaminated vegetables and fruit grown in that soil.Once in the stomach, immature worms hatch from the eggs. The larvae are carried through the lungs and then to the throat where they are swallowed. Once swallowed, they reach the intestines and develop into adult worms. During movement through the lungs the larvae may produce an uncommon form of pneumonia called eosinophilic pneumonia.
It is estimated that 1 billion people are infected worldwide. Ascariasis occurs in all ages, though children seem to be affected more severely than adults.
Although no symptoms may occur, the greater the number of worms involved in the infestation, the more severe a child’s symptoms are likely to be. Children are more likely than adults to develop gastrointestinal symptoms because they have smaller intestines and are at greater risk of developing intestinal obstruction. The following symptoms may be seen with mild infestation:
* worms in stool
* coughing up worms
* loss of appetite
* shortness of breath
* abdominal distention
* severe stomach or abdominal pain
* intestinal blockage
* biliary tract blockage
More than 796 Ascaris lumbricoides worms weighing 550 g [19 ounces] were recovered at autopsy from a 2-year-old South African girl. The worms had caused torsion and gangrene of the ileum, which was interpreted as the cause of death. Read the rest of this entry »
Antibiotics for parasites in humans are the most common type of treatment that medics all over the world use in treatment of parasitic infections. This is especially the case in treatment of diseases caused by unicellular parasites, which spread disease by biting the host. The nature of bites treatable with antibiotics includes minor cetaceous lesions to major visceral wounds.
Antibiotics for parasites in humans are best administered by a qualified medic based on blood and stool screening. This is because over the counter medicines may not wipe out all the parasites in the body. Studies have also shown that use of antibiotics for the wrong reasons provide the parasites with a better thriving environment in the body. For parasites that thrive in the stomach cavity, where oxygen is limited, different antibiotics are available for flushing out the same. However, this requires the doctor to observe the parasitic infection that one has, determine the area most affected and issuing the most appropriate drugs.
Some of the parasitic symptoms treatable with antibiotics include liver abscesses, fallopian tubes and ovary abscesses and bacterial peritonitis. Giardia lamblia is common intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea and abdominal pain. Luckily for most people, the parasite can be treated with antibiotics. Also in this category is trichomonas, which is a parasite affecting the vaginal area causing vaginitis. Antibiotics used in the treatment of such usually block the functions of the parasite thus leading to its death.
Giardia infections occur in the small intestines, and can occur in the colon, the liver and vagina. When such happens on the colon, the patient may present with symptoms of bloody diarrhea commonly known as amoebic dysentery. Depending on the severity of the symptoms, doctors are able to prescribe a combination of antibiotics for parasites in humans for the treatment of the same. Trichomonas parasitic infections are sexually transmitted and effective treatment of the same must include sexual partners. Read the rest of this entry »